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#26760 - 09/30/04 08:38 AM Necropsy Information

This thread is meant to be a resource for necropsy information. Several threads and posts have been combined, original authors and dates are noted when possible. ~sugarlope

This is a tough subject but it needs to be said--if you have a glider pass away--it is essential that you do not freeze your lost pet. Freezing destroys cells walls and damages the tissues needed for a proper necropsy. We did one last weekend, and ran into many inconsistencies, most of which were caused by freezing. Refrigeration is fine, but don't freeze them. Your vet cannot get an accurate reading on what might have happened to your glider. Thank you--and I hope none of you have to go through this anytime soon! (originally posted by GlidinforLove 09/30/2004)

"Place your baby's body in a ziplock baggie as soon as possible & place them in the refrigerator. (NOT THE FREEZER) this will help stop some of the necrosis (it does not prevent the tissue & organs from dying completely). Then the sooner you can get your gliders body into the vet the better the necropsy results can be." (originally posted by SweetGliders 12/20/2008)

"The only thing I would like to add to this is that Dr.Tristan stated it is much better to get the glider in between 12-24 hours. You have a lot more to work with on a glider in that time frame. However, a glider can still be done up to 48 hours. Chances are anything after the 24 hour period you will have to send tissues off to the lab though." (originally posted by Srlb 12/20/2008)

"[Dr Tristan] asked me to please tell people that have necropsies done to make sure if tissue samples are being sent out, to PLEASE make sure it is a pathologist that does EXOTICS. As most pathologist do not really know the different types of things to look for when dealing with a specimen they are not used to seeing.
He suggested I pass on the name of the ONLY pathologist he uses and encourages people to please ask your vet to send off the tissues to them. They (Zoo/Exotic Pathology Service) are experienced with gliders and other exotics and know different areas/tissues and problems to look for that someone else may not. Their names are Dr. Drury R. Reavill and Dr. Robert E Schmidt. Their information can be found Here." (originally posted by Srlb 06/08/2007)

#986742 - 08/04/10 09:23 PM Importance of Necropsies & histopathology
Feather Offline

Registered: 01/19/08
Posts: 11945
Loc: Wisconsin
I took notes during Dr. Tristan's talk on the importance of necropsies and histopathology. It is just an outline, of his PowerPoint presentation.

I. Importance of Necropsies & Histopathology
1. Biological Samples
a. Fecal
b. Blood - liver (bile acids most beneficial)
2. Urine - best to take with a needle from the
bladder vs. voided.
3. FNA - cytology
a. Imaging
1. X-rays - digital x-rays are great
2. Ultra sound

II. veterinarian Limitations
1. Experience and Training
2. Comfort level, comfortable working with sugar
gliders or small animals
3. Patient size - adults/juveniles
4. Sample size - urine/blood (blood 1% of body
5. Laboratory limits
6. Diagnostic limits - e-rays

III. Why aren't we getting more answers
1. Limited case reports
2. Limited information on current US populations
3. Lack of standardized procedures & diagnostics
4. Lack of cases with a definitive diagnosis
5. Limited necropsy & histopathology reports &

IV. Some of the common emerging diseases & syndromes
1. Facial abscesses
2. Liver syndrome
3. HLP (hind leg paresis)
4. "Hissing" syndrome
5. Cancer (lymphoma)*Dr. Tristan has had some
success treating gliders for cancer.

V. How do we get more information
1. More diagnostic testing - blood work, xrays,
2. Necropsy & histopathologies done
3. Photos
4. Standardize data collection
5. Compile results from across the country
6. Perform statistical analysis of the information

VI. Getting the most out of your necropsy
1. Refridgerate - DO NOT FREEZE
2. Get glider to your veterinarian ASAP
After 6 hours tissues begin to break down, you won't get good necropsy results if you wait to long.

VII. Necropsy Submissions
1. Submit a history form
2. All submissions are confidential
3. Packaging of samples - gliders
a. Box
b. Cooler
c. Gel packs - frozen
d. Small box
e. Zip lock bag
f. Larger bag
g. Envelope Attn: Dr. Tristan from__________
put in zip lock bag
h. History form, in envelope

VIII. Costs
1. Priority overnight shipping
2. Necropsy fee $25.00
3. Histopathology 3-4 tissues $150.00, 7 tissues
4. Remains are cremated on site at the hospital
a. no charge
5. Additional cost for cremation if ashes are
a. Cremation fee
b. Postage fee
1. Call for pricing

Ship to: Attention Dr. Tim Tristan
Oso Creek Animal Hospital
7713 S. Staples
Corpus Christi, TX 78413

Put your phone number and fax number in there.

To pack the glider for shipment:

First put the glider in a zip lock bag.

Put that bag with the glider in the smaller box.

Put that box with your envelope (which is in its own zip lock bag) into a larger plastic bag.

In the cooler put down one frozen gel pack, place the large plastic bag with the box inside on top of the gel pack, place the other frozen gel pack on that.

Close the cooler and pack into the large cardboard box.

Address and send off Next Day Air.

These are the notes I took, if I have missed anything and you were at the SGGA please add to my notes.

#988545 - 08/08/10 10:00 PM Shipping a glider for Necropsy/Histopath
Srlb Offline
Glideritis Anonymous

Registered: 10/30/03
Posts: 16734
Loc: St. Johns, Florida
Received the pictures from Dr.T for shipping a glider properly for a necropsy/hitopath IF needed/wanted.

If you have questions please ask and I will try my best to go over everything but doubt I will do it as he did at the SGGA.

First of all, a picture of ALL supplies needed (minus the glider)

Now for the breakdown in steps...

Glider goes in smaller ziplock baggie. (Keep in the refrigerator (DO NOT FREEZE)until you are ready to ship.)
Glider in baggie gets placed into smaller box.
Box gets placed into larger baggie and closed.

Place frozen ice pack in bottom of Styrofoam container.
Place box container glider on top of icepack.

Place second ice pack on top of box containing glider.

Place and secure lid on Styrofoam container. Place Styrofoam container inside shipping box.

Glider must be shipped OVERNIGHT. Unless you ship FedEx (which is the most expensive) you MUST be at your post office BEFORE noon in order for guaranteed overnight delivery.

Write down information for Dr.T (or whomever you are shipping your glider to). Place on top of lid of styrofoam container in plastic baggie. (just in case of water leakage)

(Bourbon, if you can, would you post a copy of what was printed out at the SGGA for this and maybe we can keep it attached to this thread please?)

Basic info however,

Name of glider
any illnesses
last time to vet

Once I get that list he had there, I will post it.

Hope this helps.

If you also need his address let me know and I can post that also.

#989131 - 08/10/10 08:01 AM Shipping a glider for Necropsy/Histopath
Srlb Offline
Glideritis Anonymous

Registered: 10/30/03
Posts: 16734
Loc: St. Johns, Florida
Here is the questionnaire that should go along with the glider if sent to Dr.T

General Information
Age (If age is unknown, please give the closest estimate)


Neutered (include method if known)?

How many gliders are housed in the cage?

How big is the cage? (dimensions cm/inches)

How many gliders are directly related (ie sons, daughters, sisters, etc)?

diet (please be as complete as possible and include amounts, percentages, frequency, treats and all information that may be pertinent)

Medical information
List all previous medical conditions

List current condition that resulted in the gliders death, if known. If unknown, put ”UNK”

What was the first sign that your glider was sick and what date did this start

Did you take your glider to a veterinarian

What medications has your glider been on (also include duration of med administration)

Please list any other information you feel may be relevant


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