I just wanted to post Odo's necropsy results. He was euthanized because of a 10 cm hernia, we all know how invasive abdominal surgery in a sugar glider can be and with the possibility of have to resection bowel it was in his best interest to be humanely euthanized.
Odo has been on HPW Complete or HPW Plus since he was about 3 months OOP.
VMTH PATHOLOGY SERVICES/PH:(608)263-9934
2015 LINDEN DRIVE
JUN-27-14 09:28 AM
Phone #: 608-263-7600 Fax #: 608-265-5626
MADISON, WI 53706
DR. CHRISTOPH MANS
06/20/2014 Finalized: 06/26/2014
Owner: KIMBERLY TADDER
705 LINCOLN AVE APT 1
STOUGHTON, WI 53589
UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN
Case Coordinator: Howard Steinberg
RABIES SUSPECT? IF Y, SUBMIT RABIES FORM 4110: NODATE
& TIME OF DEATH? -6/20/14 11:30am
DEATH HOW? EUTHANIZED-0.1 ml Beuthanasia injected in ventral tail vein, took another 0.1 to
PERMISSION FOR NECROPSY GRANTED? YES, WRITTEN AND VERBALIS
ANIMAL INSURED? NOTYPE
OF NECROPSY? COMPLETETYPE
OF DISPOSAL? GRP CREMATION NO RTRN OF ASHES-This animal is part of adiet
/nutrition study and the owner requests the femurs be sent in formalin to Zoo/Exotic Pathology
Services and that the heart, liver and kidneys be saved in formalin for possible future testing.
BODY IN/LABELED? H. OTHER, SPECIFY-Clear bag, yellow tag
BRIEF HISTORY: -This animal was thought to be female when born but never developed a pouch.
When the litter was brought in for neutering, this animal was anesthetized and a undescended testicle
thought to be palpated in the abdomen. The owner chose not to neuter but to watch for problems
related to cryptorchidism. A month or two ago the owner noticed a swelling in the abdomen and
assumed it was the testicle now increasing in size. A week ago it was FNA'd and thought to contain
intestinal material and presumed to be a hernia. It is growing in size and the owner elected to
euthanize and use him as part of a nutrition study.
CURRENT PHYSICAL FINDINGS: -Large abdominal mass/swellingin abdomen, no pouch or
scrotum, otherwise PE WNL
SURGICAL FINDINGS (IF ANY)? -N/A
PERTINENT LABORATORY RESULTS: -intestinal flora/material on FNA of swelling
IMAGING RESULTS X-RAY, ULTRASOUND: -N/A
IMAGING RESULTS CT, MRI: -N/A
CLINICAL DIAGNOSIS: -Hernia
WHAT DETAILS/ANSWERS WILL NECROPSY PROVIDE? -Hernia vs ectopic testicle vs other
PREVIOUS BIOPSIES? IF Y, GIVE BIOPSY #S: NOIF
NONVMTH BX, PROVIDE COPY OF RESULTS: -N/A
MICROBIOLOGY ANALYSIS? IF Y, LIST TESTS: NOVIROLOGY
ANALYSIS? IF Y, LIST TESTS: NORABIES
TESTING WANTED, DESCRIBE: -Owner requests femurs be sent in formalin to Zoo/Exotic
Pathology Services as part of nutrition study and that liver, heart and kidneys be saved in formalin for
possible further testing
Photograph of hernia mass
Special & Pending Studies
This is the body of a three-year-old intact male sugar glider, weighing
85.86 grams with a body condition score of 5/9. This animal was
euthanized 6/20/14 at 11:30 am and necropsied on 6/20/14 at
approximately 2:00 pm.
On external exam there is a 3.0 x 2.5 x 1.0 cm spherical, firm, partially
haired, mass in the left inguinal region. The caudo-medial region of the
mass is alopecic. There is a haired diverticulum of skin on the caudomedial
surface of the mass measuring approximately 0.5 x 0.5 cm x 0.5
cm. The skin at the ventral midline at the level of the base of the neck is
thinly haired (approximately 1.0 x 1.0 x 1.0 cm) and the hair that is
present is light yellow in color (differing from the surrounding white hair).
Reflection of the skin reveals a spermatic cord exiting the right inguinal
canal, but reveals no identifiable testicle at its end.
With digital pressure, the gall bladder failed to express normally,
presumed normal post-mortem changes.
The left inguinal mass consists of a rent in the abdominal wall 17 mm
long surrounded by a white slightly raised firm rim and within which the
urinary bladder and 10.0 cm of colon, the most proximal of which is just
distal to the ceco-colic junction pass through from the abdominal cavity to
the subcutaneous space. The spleen is enlarged, swollen, congested,
and cylindrical and measures 2.0 x 0.5 x 0.5 cm. It is displaced, present
in the mid-caudal abdomen and caudal to the stomach. A white round
object measuring 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.5 cm is found in the left side of the caudal
abdomen, presumed testicle. No second testicle is observed.
The right ureter is double the thickness of the left ureter.
1. Caudal Abdominal wall: Chronic hernia
2. Gastrointestinal System: Abdominal wall herniation of proximal colon
3. Urogenital System
1. Abdominal wall herniation of the urinary bladder
2. Unilateral (presumed left) cryptorchid testicle
3. Unilateral hydroureter, Right
4. Spleen: Marked congestion with caudal displacement
2. Intestinal and bladder hernia of the abdominal wall
1. The intestinal hernia finding is consistent with the FNA results of the
2. The herniation of the bladder and possible strangulation of the outflow
tract to the bladder could be the reason for the enlarged ureter.
3. The absence of a second testicle could be from it being surgically
removed at the time of neutering the rest of the litter, or it being
hypoplastic or aplastic.
4. The location of the spleen is presumed to be from the mesentery
pulling it in the direction of the hernia.
Slide #1. Liver: The gallbladder is markedly dilated containing
inspissated secretion. There is moderate periportal to periportal bridging
contained within are large numbers of reduplicated biliary epithelium and
ducts. There are scattered hemosiderin laden macrophages/Kupffer cells
occasionally present. Small numbers of primarily lymphocytes
occasionally accompanying the bridging reduplicated bile ducts.
Spleen: Red pulp is diffusely congested. Periarteriolar lymphoid sheaths
are prominent with abundant small lymphocytes but lacking germinal
Testis: Sections of the testis are present and there is no evidence of
Slide #2. Lungs: There are no discernible pathologic changes present.
Heart: There are no discernible pathologic changes present.
Urinary bladder: There are no discernible pathologic changes present. In
addition to the ureters within the mesenteric attachments there is
evidence of an unremarkable vas deferens.
Slide #3. Kidneys and adrenal glands: Adrenal glands are unremarkable.
The right kidney exhibits marked distention of the pelvis with subsequent
compression of the adjacent renal parenchyma. Bilaterally the kidneys are
otherwise within normal limits.
Slide #4. Cecum: Multiple sections of the cecum that were trapped within
the hernial sac are evaluated. Luminal surfaces distended by excessive
amounts of fecal material. The cecal tissue itself is markedly dilated and
1. Gallbladder: Biliary mucocele
2. Liver: Marked portal fifth of bridging with severe bile duct
3. Spleen: Marked congestion
4. Testis: Diffuse aspermatogenesis
5. Kidneys: Unilateral (right) hydronephrosis
6. Cecum: Obstipation with compressive atrophy
The mucocele and biliary duplication along with the inability to express
the gallbladder grossly is consistent with posthepatic obstruction most
likely related to the stretching tissues to the herniated through the
abdominal ring of the body wall. A second testicle was not found in the
single testicle exhibits marked atrophy and a spermatogenesis. Dilated
right ureter seen grossly extends up into the renal pelvis of the right
kidney resulting in hydronephrosis consistent with again the stretching of
tissues in an obstruction of ureter and bladder present within the hernial
HOWARD STEINBERG, VMD, PHD, DACVP
UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN
Accession Number: N14-00567